Araştırma Makalesi
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Murree (Pakistan) çevresindeki oldukça bozulmuş iğne yapraklı ormanların vejetasyonu

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 43 - 53, 30.09.2020
https://doi.org/10.38059/biodiversity.708154

Öz

Bu fitososyolojik araştırma, Murree tepeleri çevresindeki çeşitli bozulmuş ormanlarda yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın temel amacı topluluk türlerini, ilişkili zemin florasını ve toprak özellikleri ile ilişkilerini araştırmaktır. Sekiz bitki topluluğu ve iki monospesifik meşcere tanımlanmıştır: Pinus wallichiana (saf), Pinus roxburghii (saf), Pinus wallichiana-Quercus baloot, Pinus wallichiana-Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana-Abies pindrow, Pinus wallichiana-Quercus dilatata, Quercus dilatat-Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii-Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii-Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii-Quercus dilatata. Pinus wallichiana 8 standda monospesifik olarak baskınken, 5 yerde bulunan Pinus roxburghii-Pinus wallichiana topluluk türleri. Pinus wallichiana, Cedrus deodara ve Abies ile 4 yerde ayrı ayrı topluluk oluşturmuştur. Pinus wallichiana-Cedrus deodara ve Pinus roxburghii-Quercus dilatata topluluğunda, yani 128 ağaç/saatte elde edilen en yüksek meşcere yoğunluğu olarak gözlenmiştir. Pinus wallichiana (saf) meşcerelerinden kaydedilen en yüksek bazal alan (48.06 (m²/ha) olarak kaydedilmiştir. Pusus wallichiana-Pinus roxburghii toplulukları ağaç yoğunluğu ile anlamlı bir şekilde korelasyon göstermiştir (p <0.05). DO. PH, Sıcaklık, İletkenlik, Tuzluluk, ORP her topluluk türündeki kimyasal parametreler de gösterilmiş ve tartışılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed M (1986). Vegetation of some foothills of Himalayan range in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 18(2): 261-269. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19870701046
  • Ahmed M (1988). Plant communities of some northern temperate forest of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 38: 33-40. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=PK8800939
  • Ahmed M, Shaukat SS (2012). A text book of vegetation Ecology. Abrar sons,Urdu Bazar Karachi. 396 pp. Doi:10.1007/s11676-014-0490-x
  • Ahmed M, Ahmed, I, Anjum, PI (1989). A study of natural regeneration of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb in Baluchistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 21: 118-127. https://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/44(5)/20.pdf
  • Ahmed M, Naqvi E, Wang LM (1990a). Present state of Juniper in Rodhmallazai Forest of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 227-236.
  • Ahmed M, Shahid SS, Buzdar AH (1990b). Population structure and dynamic of Juniperus excelsa. M.B. in Baluchistan, Pakistan Journal of Vegetation Science (1): 271-276.
  • Ahmed M, Ashfaq M, Amjad M, Saeed M (1991). Vegetation structure and dynamics of Pinus gerardiana forest in Baluchistan. Pakistan Journal of Vegetation Sciences 2: 119-124.
  • Ahmed M, Naqvi SH (2005). Tree-Ring Chronologies of Picea smithiana (WALL.) BIOSS., and its quantitative vegetational description from Himalayan Range of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 37(3): 697-707.
  • Ahmed M, Hussain T, Sheikh AH, Hussain SS, Siddiqui MF (2006). Phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic zones of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38(2): 361-383. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/38(2)/PJB38(2)361.pdf
  • Ahmed M, Khan N, Wahab M, Hamza S, Siddiqui MF, Nazim K, Khan MU (2009). Vegetation structure of Olea ferugenia (Royle) Forests of Dir lower District of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(6): 2683-2695. Doi:10.30848/PJB2020-2(38)
  • Ahmed M, Khan N, Wahab M, Hamza S, Siddiqui MF, Nazim K, Khan MU (2010). Description and structure of Olea ferruginea (Royle) forest of Dir Lower District of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(6): 2683-2683.
  • Beg AR (1974). Vegetation on the screen slope of Chitral Gol. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 24(2): 393-402.
  • Beg AR, Khan MH (1984). Some more plant communities and the future of dry oak forest zone in Swat valley. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 34: 25-35.
  • Braun-Blanquet J (1965). Plant sociology: the study of plant communities: London. Hafner.
  • Champion GH, Seth SK, Khattak GM (1965). Forest types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar. pp. 238.
  • Chaudhri II (1960). The vegetation of Kaghan valley. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 10(4): 285-294.
  • Cottam G, Curtis JT (1956). The use of distance measures in Phytosociological sampling. Ecology 37(3): 451-460.
  • Hussain F, Badshah L (1998). Vegetation structure of Pirghar hills, South Waziristan, Pakistan. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 6: 187-195.
  • Iqbal J, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan A, Wahab M (2017). Age and radial growth rate analysis of conifer tree species from Shangla, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 49(SI): 69-72.
  • Iqbal J, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan A (2020). Tree ring studies from some conifers and present condition of forest of Shangla district of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 52(2): 653-662. Doi:10.30848/PJB2020-2(38)
  • Khan N (2011). Vegetation Ecology and Dendrochronology of Chitral, Pakistan. PhD Thesis, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan. pp 356.
  • Khan N, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Ajaib M (2010a). Phytosociology structure and phytochemical analysis of soil in Quercus baloot Griff. Forest District Chitral, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(4): 2429-2441. Doi:10.1007/s11703-011-1062-x
  • Khan N, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Ajaib M (2010b). Size class structure and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia and associated tree species District Dir Lower Pakistan. Frontiers of Agriculture in China 5: 106-121. Doi: 10.1007/s11703-011-1062-x
  • Kjeldahl J (1883). New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic substances, Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie 22(1): 366-383.
  • Malik RN, Hussain SZ (2007). Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L Her. Exvent: An environmental constraint on the Himalayan foothills vegetation. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39:1045-1053
  • Mueller-Dombios D, Ellenberg H (1974). Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology John Wiley and sons. Inc. New York.
  • Nazim K (2011). Population dynamics of mangrove forests from coastal areas of Sindh. Ph.D Thesis, Dept. of Botany, Fed. Urdu University, Karachi.
  • Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996). Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter.In: Sparks. D. L et al., (Ed). Methods of Soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical Method SSSA Book Ser.5, SSSA, Madison, WI. 961-1010. Doi:10.4236/ojss.2013.38042
  • Ogden J, Wardle GM, Ahmed M (1987). Population dynamics of the emergent conifer Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl. (kauri) in New Zealand I1. Seedling population sizes and gap-phase regeneration. New Zealand Journal of Botany 25: 231-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1987.10410069
  • Oosting HJ (1956). The Study of Plant Communities. Freeman and Co. San Francisco, pp.440. https://www.cabdirect.org/ cabdirect/abstract/19570700388
  • Shimwell DW (1971). Description of Classification of Vegetation. London: Sedgewick and Jackson, pp.322.
  • Siddiqui MF (2011). Community structure and dynamics of conifer forests of moist temperate areas of Himalayan range of Pakistan. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences and Technology Karachi.
  • Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Khan MU, Nazim K, Hussain SS (2009). Phytosociology of Pinus roxbhurgii in lesser Himalayan and Hindu Kush range of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 2357-2369.
  • Thorpe RS, Surget-Groba Y, Johansson H (2008). The relative importance of ecology and geographic isolation for speciation in anoles. Phil Trans R Soc Lond, B 363: 3071–3081. Doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0077
  • Wahab M (2011). Population Dynamics and Dendrochronological potential of Pine Tree Species of Dir, Pakistan. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences and Technology Karachi.
  • Wahab M, Ahmed M, Khan N (2008). Phytosociology and dynamics of some pine forest of Afghanistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(3): 1071-1079.

Vegetation of highly disturbed conifer forests around Murree, Pakistan

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 43 - 53, 30.09.2020
https://doi.org/10.38059/biodiversity.708154

Öz

This phytosociological investigation is conducted in various disturbed forests around Murree hills. The main purpose of study is to explore community types, associated ground flora and their relation to soil characteristics. Eight community types and two monospecific tree stands have been recognized as follows: Pinus wallichiana (pure), Pinus roxburghii (pure), Pinus wallichiana-Quercus baloot, Pinus wallichiana-Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana-Abies pindrow, Pinus wallichiana-Quercus dilatata, Quercus dilatata-Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii-Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii-Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii-Quercus dilatata. Pinus wallichiana dominates monospecifically in 8 stands while Pinus roxburghii -Pinus wallichiana community types found at 5 locations. Pinus wallichiana formed community type with Cedrus deodara and Abies pindrow at 4 locations separately. Highest stand density achieved in Pinus wallichiana-Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii-Quercus dilatata community i.e. 128 trees/h. Highest basal area (48.06 (m²/ha) recorded from Pinus wallichiana (pure) stands. Pinus wallichiana-Pinus roxburghii communities correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with tree density. Range of DO. pH, Temperature, Conductivity, Salinity, ORP and chemical parameters in each community type has also shown and discussed.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed M (1986). Vegetation of some foothills of Himalayan range in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 18(2): 261-269. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19870701046
  • Ahmed M (1988). Plant communities of some northern temperate forest of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 38: 33-40. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=PK8800939
  • Ahmed M, Shaukat SS (2012). A text book of vegetation Ecology. Abrar sons,Urdu Bazar Karachi. 396 pp. Doi:10.1007/s11676-014-0490-x
  • Ahmed M, Ahmed, I, Anjum, PI (1989). A study of natural regeneration of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb in Baluchistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 21: 118-127. https://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/44(5)/20.pdf
  • Ahmed M, Naqvi E, Wang LM (1990a). Present state of Juniper in Rodhmallazai Forest of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 227-236.
  • Ahmed M, Shahid SS, Buzdar AH (1990b). Population structure and dynamic of Juniperus excelsa. M.B. in Baluchistan, Pakistan Journal of Vegetation Science (1): 271-276.
  • Ahmed M, Ashfaq M, Amjad M, Saeed M (1991). Vegetation structure and dynamics of Pinus gerardiana forest in Baluchistan. Pakistan Journal of Vegetation Sciences 2: 119-124.
  • Ahmed M, Naqvi SH (2005). Tree-Ring Chronologies of Picea smithiana (WALL.) BIOSS., and its quantitative vegetational description from Himalayan Range of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 37(3): 697-707.
  • Ahmed M, Hussain T, Sheikh AH, Hussain SS, Siddiqui MF (2006). Phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic zones of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38(2): 361-383. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/38(2)/PJB38(2)361.pdf
  • Ahmed M, Khan N, Wahab M, Hamza S, Siddiqui MF, Nazim K, Khan MU (2009). Vegetation structure of Olea ferugenia (Royle) Forests of Dir lower District of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(6): 2683-2695. Doi:10.30848/PJB2020-2(38)
  • Ahmed M, Khan N, Wahab M, Hamza S, Siddiqui MF, Nazim K, Khan MU (2010). Description and structure of Olea ferruginea (Royle) forest of Dir Lower District of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(6): 2683-2683.
  • Beg AR (1974). Vegetation on the screen slope of Chitral Gol. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 24(2): 393-402.
  • Beg AR, Khan MH (1984). Some more plant communities and the future of dry oak forest zone in Swat valley. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 34: 25-35.
  • Braun-Blanquet J (1965). Plant sociology: the study of plant communities: London. Hafner.
  • Champion GH, Seth SK, Khattak GM (1965). Forest types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar. pp. 238.
  • Chaudhri II (1960). The vegetation of Kaghan valley. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 10(4): 285-294.
  • Cottam G, Curtis JT (1956). The use of distance measures in Phytosociological sampling. Ecology 37(3): 451-460.
  • Hussain F, Badshah L (1998). Vegetation structure of Pirghar hills, South Waziristan, Pakistan. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 6: 187-195.
  • Iqbal J, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan A, Wahab M (2017). Age and radial growth rate analysis of conifer tree species from Shangla, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 49(SI): 69-72.
  • Iqbal J, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan A (2020). Tree ring studies from some conifers and present condition of forest of Shangla district of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 52(2): 653-662. Doi:10.30848/PJB2020-2(38)
  • Khan N (2011). Vegetation Ecology and Dendrochronology of Chitral, Pakistan. PhD Thesis, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan. pp 356.
  • Khan N, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Ajaib M (2010a). Phytosociology structure and phytochemical analysis of soil in Quercus baloot Griff. Forest District Chitral, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(4): 2429-2441. Doi:10.1007/s11703-011-1062-x
  • Khan N, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Ajaib M (2010b). Size class structure and regeneration potential of Monotheca buxifolia and associated tree species District Dir Lower Pakistan. Frontiers of Agriculture in China 5: 106-121. Doi: 10.1007/s11703-011-1062-x
  • Kjeldahl J (1883). New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic substances, Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie 22(1): 366-383.
  • Malik RN, Hussain SZ (2007). Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L Her. Exvent: An environmental constraint on the Himalayan foothills vegetation. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39:1045-1053
  • Mueller-Dombios D, Ellenberg H (1974). Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology John Wiley and sons. Inc. New York.
  • Nazim K (2011). Population dynamics of mangrove forests from coastal areas of Sindh. Ph.D Thesis, Dept. of Botany, Fed. Urdu University, Karachi.
  • Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996). Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter.In: Sparks. D. L et al., (Ed). Methods of Soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical Method SSSA Book Ser.5, SSSA, Madison, WI. 961-1010. Doi:10.4236/ojss.2013.38042
  • Ogden J, Wardle GM, Ahmed M (1987). Population dynamics of the emergent conifer Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl. (kauri) in New Zealand I1. Seedling population sizes and gap-phase regeneration. New Zealand Journal of Botany 25: 231-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1987.10410069
  • Oosting HJ (1956). The Study of Plant Communities. Freeman and Co. San Francisco, pp.440. https://www.cabdirect.org/ cabdirect/abstract/19570700388
  • Shimwell DW (1971). Description of Classification of Vegetation. London: Sedgewick and Jackson, pp.322.
  • Siddiqui MF (2011). Community structure and dynamics of conifer forests of moist temperate areas of Himalayan range of Pakistan. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences and Technology Karachi.
  • Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Khan MU, Nazim K, Hussain SS (2009). Phytosociology of Pinus roxbhurgii in lesser Himalayan and Hindu Kush range of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 2357-2369.
  • Thorpe RS, Surget-Groba Y, Johansson H (2008). The relative importance of ecology and geographic isolation for speciation in anoles. Phil Trans R Soc Lond, B 363: 3071–3081. Doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0077
  • Wahab M (2011). Population Dynamics and Dendrochronological potential of Pine Tree Species of Dir, Pakistan. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences and Technology Karachi.
  • Wahab M, Ahmed M, Khan N (2008). Phytosociology and dynamics of some pine forest of Afghanistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(3): 1071-1079.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Temel Bilimler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Afsheen KHAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Federal Urdu University Karachi Pakistan
0000-0001-7557-5210
Pakistan


Moinuddin AHMED Bu kişi benim
Department of Botany, Dr. Moinuddin Ahmed Laboratory of Ecology and Dendrochronology Research, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology
0000-0002-0728-6780
Pakistan


Farid AHMED Bu kişi benim
Department of Forestry, Punjab
0000-0003-4340-3582
Pakistan


Rafat SAEED Bu kişi benim
Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology
0000-0002-7403-1307
Türkiye


Faheem SIDDIQUI Bu kişi benim
Department of Botany, Tree Ring Research Laboratory, University of Karachi
0000-0003-0567-5165
Pakistan

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Mart 2020
Kabul Tarihi 12 Nisan 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Khan, A. , Ahmed, M. , Ahmed, F. , Saeed, R. & Sıddıquı, F. (2020). Vegetation of highly disturbed conifer forests around Murree, Pakistan . Turkish Journal of Biodiversity , 3 (2) , 43-53 . DOI: 10.38059/biodiversity.708154

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