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Türkiye’de tespit edilen fosil gymnosperm ağaçlarının mekânsal ve zamansal dağılımı

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 57 - 66, 31.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.38059/biodiversity.1094302

Öz

Son yıllarda giderek artan fosil çalışmalar, geçmişten günümüze odunsu bitki çeşitliliğinin değişimini ortaya koymakta ve günümüzle karşılaştırma olanağı sunmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye’de fosil odunlarla ilgili makalelerde tespit edilen gymnosperm cins ve türlerinin zamansal ve alansal dağılımını irdelemektir. Ülkemizde varlığı tespit edilen en yaşlı gymnospermler Orta Jura döneminden olup üç cinsten ikisi günümüzde temsilcileri bulunmayan Xenoxylon ve Protelicoxylon, biri de günümüzde Güney Yarımkürede temsilcileri olan Agathoxylon fosil cinsleridir. Bu üç fosil cins, Orta Jura döneminde Erzurum-Gümüşhane hattında karasal kıyı şeridinin varlığına da göstermektedir. En yaygın gymnospermler ise Oligo-Miyosen dönemine ait olup bunlar Pinuxylon, Cedrus, Taxodioxylon, Glyptostroboxylon, Cupressinoxylon, Ginkgoxylon, Juniperoxylon ve Podocarpoxylon fosil cinsleridir. Bu cinslerden bazılarının (Pinus, Cedrus, Cupressus, Juniperus) günümüzde temsilcileri bulunurken, diğerlerinin (Glyptosrobus, Taxodium/Sequoia, Ginkgo ve Podocarpus) temsilcileri Türkiye topraklarından uzaklaşmışlardır.

Kaynakça

  • Acarca Bayam NN, Akkemik Ü, Poole I, Akarsu F (2018). Further Contributions to the early Miocene forest vegetation of the Galatean Volcanic Province, Turkey. Palaeobotanica Electronica, 21.3.40A 1-42. DOI. 10.26879/816.
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  • Akgün F, Kayseri MS, Akkiraz MS (2007). Palaeoclimatic evolution and vegetational changes during the Late Oligocene–Miocene period in western and central Anatolia (Turkey). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253: 56-90.
  • Akkemik Ü, Köse N, Poole I (2005). Sequoioideae (Cupressaceae) woods from the upper Oligocene of European Turkey (Thrace), Phytologıa Balcanica, 11 (2), 119-131.
  • Akkemik Ü, Türkoğlu N, Poole I, Çiçek İ, Köse N, Gürgen G (2009). Wood of a Miocene petrifield forest near Ankara, Turkey, Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33 (1), 89-97.
  • Akkemik Ü, Sakınç M (2013). Sequoioxylon petrified woods from the Mid to Late Oligocene of Thrace (Turkey). IAWA Journal 34 (2): 177-182.
  • Akkemik Ü, Arslan M, Poole I, Tosun S, Kose N, Kılıc NK, Aydın A (2016). Silicified woods from two previously undescribed early Miocene forest sites near Seben, northwest Turkey, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 235, 31-50.
  • Akkemik Ü, Acarca NN, Hatipoğlu M (2017). The first Glyptostroboxylon from the Miocene of Turkey. IAWA Journal, 38(4): 561-570.
  • Akkemik Ü, Atıcı G, Poole I, Çobankaya M (2018). Three new silicified woods from a newly discovered earliest Miocene forest site in the Haymana Basin (Ankara, Turkey), Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 254, 49-64.
  • Akkemik Ü (2019). New fossil wood descriptions from the Pliocene of central Anatolia and the presence of Taxodioxylon in Turkey from the Oligocene to Pliocene, Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 28(3): 398-409.
  • Akkemik Ü, Acarca Bayam NN (2019). The First Glyptostroboxylon and Taxodioxylon Descriptions from the Late Miocene of Turkey and Palaeoclimatological Evaluation. Fossil Imprint, 75(2): 268-280.
  • Akkemik Ü, Yıldırım DK, Sakala J, Akkılıç H, Altınışık A (2019a). New petrified wood descriptions from west-central Anatolia: contribution to the composition of the Neogene forest of Turkey, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen, 292(1): 57-71.
  • Akkemik Ü, Akkılıç H, Güngör Y (2019b). Fossil wood from the Neogene of the Kilyos coastal area in Istanbul, Turkey. Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 299 (1-6): 133-185.
  • Akkemik Ü (2020). Some fossil conifer species descriptions from the Paleogene to Pliocene of Turkey and their evaluations. Eurasian Journal of Forest Science 8(3): 244-257.
  • Akkemik Ü, Mantzouka D, Kıran Yıldırım D (2020). The first report of a new Lesbosoxylon species from the early–middle Miocene of eastern Anatolia. Geodiversitas. 42 (23): 427-441.
  • Akkemik Ü (2021a). A. new species of Juniperoxylon from the early Miocene of northwestern Turkey. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae 17 (1): 15-26.
  • Akkemik Ü (2021b). A new fossil Cedrus species from the early Miocene of northwestern Turkey and its possible affinities. Palaeoworld 30, 746-756.
  • Akkemik Ü, Kandemir R, Philippe M, Güngör Y, Köroğlu F (2022). Palaeobiogeographical implications of the first fossil wood flora from the Jurassic of Turkey. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. In press. Akkiraz MS, Sezgül Kayseri M, Akgün F (2007). Palaeoecology of Coal-Bearing Eocene Sediments in Central Anatolia (Turkey) Based on Quantitative Palynological Data. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 317-360.
  • Akkiraz MS, Akgün F, Utescher T, Bruch AA, Mosbrugger V (2011). Precipitation gradients during the Miocene in Western and Central Turkey as quantified from pollen data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304: 276-290.
  • Aytug B, Sanli I (1974). Foret de la fin du Tertiaire aux environs du Bosphore. Istanbul Univ. Orman Fak. Derg., 24: 64-78.
  • Bannister P, Neuner G (2001). Frost resistance and the distribution of conifers. – In: Bigras F.J., Colombo S.J. (eds.), Conifer cold hardiness. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp.3-22.
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  • Bouchal JM, Zetter R, Grímsson F, Denk T (2016). The middle Miocene palynoflora and palaeoenvironments of Eskihisar (Yatağan Basin, southwestern Anatolia): a combined LM and SEM investigation. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 182, 14–79.https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12446
  • Bouchal JM, Mayda S, Zetter R, Grimsson F, Akgün F, Denk T (2017). Miocene palynofloras of the Tınaz lignite mine, Muğla, southwest Anatolia: Taxonomy, palaeoecology and local vegetation change. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 243: 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.02.010
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  • Denk T, Güner HT, Grimm G (2014). From mesic to arid: Leaf epidermal features suggest preadaptation in Miocene dragon trees (Dracaena), Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 211-228.
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  • Denk T, Velitzelos D, Güner T, Bouchal JM, Grimsson F, Grimm GW (2017b). Taxonomy and palaeoecology of two widespread western Eurasian Neogene sclerophyllous oak species: Quercus drymeja Unger and Q. mediterranea Unger. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 241: 98-128.
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Spatial and temporal distribution of fossil gymnosperm trees identified in Türkiye

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 57 - 66, 31.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.38059/biodiversity.1094302

Öz

Increasing fossil studies in recent years reveal the change in woody plant diversity from past to present and offer the opportunity to compare with today. The aim of the study is to examine the temporal and spatial distribution of gymnosperm genera and species identified in fossil wood studies in Türkiye. The oldest of the gymnosperm fossil woods identified in our country are from the Middle Jurassic period, and two of the three genera are Xenoxylon and Protelicoxylon, which have no representatives today, and Agathoxylon fossil genus, one of which has representatives in the Southern Hemisphere today. These three fossil genera also indicate the existence of a terrestrial coastline on the Erzurum-Gümüşhane line during the middle Jurassic period. The most common gymnosperms belong to the Oligo-Miocene period, and these are the fossil genera Pinuxylon, Cedrus, Taxodioxylon, Glyptostroboxylon, Cupressinoxylon, Ginkgoxylon, Juniperoxylon, and Podocarpoxylon. While some of these genera (Pinus, Cedrus, Cupressus, Juniperus) have representatives today, the representatives of others (Glyptosrobus, Taxodium/Sequoia, Ginkgo, and Podocarpus) have moved away from Türkiye.

Kaynakça

  • Acarca Bayam NN, Akkemik Ü, Poole I, Akarsu F (2018). Further Contributions to the early Miocene forest vegetation of the Galatean Volcanic Province, Turkey. Palaeobotanica Electronica, 21.3.40A 1-42. DOI. 10.26879/816.
  • Akgün F, Akay E, Erdoğan B (2002). Terrestrial to shallow marine deposition in Central Anatolia: a palynological approach. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 11, 1-27.
  • Akgün F, Kayseri MS, Akkiraz MS (2007). Palaeoclimatic evolution and vegetational changes during the Late Oligocene–Miocene period in western and central Anatolia (Turkey). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253: 56-90.
  • Akkemik Ü, Köse N, Poole I (2005). Sequoioideae (Cupressaceae) woods from the upper Oligocene of European Turkey (Thrace), Phytologıa Balcanica, 11 (2), 119-131.
  • Akkemik Ü, Türkoğlu N, Poole I, Çiçek İ, Köse N, Gürgen G (2009). Wood of a Miocene petrifield forest near Ankara, Turkey, Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33 (1), 89-97.
  • Akkemik Ü, Sakınç M (2013). Sequoioxylon petrified woods from the Mid to Late Oligocene of Thrace (Turkey). IAWA Journal 34 (2): 177-182.
  • Akkemik Ü, Arslan M, Poole I, Tosun S, Kose N, Kılıc NK, Aydın A (2016). Silicified woods from two previously undescribed early Miocene forest sites near Seben, northwest Turkey, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 235, 31-50.
  • Akkemik Ü, Acarca NN, Hatipoğlu M (2017). The first Glyptostroboxylon from the Miocene of Turkey. IAWA Journal, 38(4): 561-570.
  • Akkemik Ü, Atıcı G, Poole I, Çobankaya M (2018). Three new silicified woods from a newly discovered earliest Miocene forest site in the Haymana Basin (Ankara, Turkey), Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 254, 49-64.
  • Akkemik Ü (2019). New fossil wood descriptions from the Pliocene of central Anatolia and the presence of Taxodioxylon in Turkey from the Oligocene to Pliocene, Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 28(3): 398-409.
  • Akkemik Ü, Acarca Bayam NN (2019). The First Glyptostroboxylon and Taxodioxylon Descriptions from the Late Miocene of Turkey and Palaeoclimatological Evaluation. Fossil Imprint, 75(2): 268-280.
  • Akkemik Ü, Yıldırım DK, Sakala J, Akkılıç H, Altınışık A (2019a). New petrified wood descriptions from west-central Anatolia: contribution to the composition of the Neogene forest of Turkey, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen, 292(1): 57-71.
  • Akkemik Ü, Akkılıç H, Güngör Y (2019b). Fossil wood from the Neogene of the Kilyos coastal area in Istanbul, Turkey. Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 299 (1-6): 133-185.
  • Akkemik Ü (2020). Some fossil conifer species descriptions from the Paleogene to Pliocene of Turkey and their evaluations. Eurasian Journal of Forest Science 8(3): 244-257.
  • Akkemik Ü, Mantzouka D, Kıran Yıldırım D (2020). The first report of a new Lesbosoxylon species from the early–middle Miocene of eastern Anatolia. Geodiversitas. 42 (23): 427-441.
  • Akkemik Ü (2021a). A. new species of Juniperoxylon from the early Miocene of northwestern Turkey. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae 17 (1): 15-26.
  • Akkemik Ü (2021b). A new fossil Cedrus species from the early Miocene of northwestern Turkey and its possible affinities. Palaeoworld 30, 746-756.
  • Akkemik Ü, Kandemir R, Philippe M, Güngör Y, Köroğlu F (2022). Palaeobiogeographical implications of the first fossil wood flora from the Jurassic of Turkey. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. In press. Akkiraz MS, Sezgül Kayseri M, Akgün F (2007). Palaeoecology of Coal-Bearing Eocene Sediments in Central Anatolia (Turkey) Based on Quantitative Palynological Data. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 317-360.
  • Akkiraz MS, Akgün F, Utescher T, Bruch AA, Mosbrugger V (2011). Precipitation gradients during the Miocene in Western and Central Turkey as quantified from pollen data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304: 276-290.
  • Aytug B, Sanli I (1974). Foret de la fin du Tertiaire aux environs du Bosphore. Istanbul Univ. Orman Fak. Derg., 24: 64-78.
  • Bannister P, Neuner G (2001). Frost resistance and the distribution of conifers. – In: Bigras F.J., Colombo S.J. (eds.), Conifer cold hardiness. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp.3-22.
  • Batı Z (1996) Palynostratigraphy and Coal Petrography of the Upper Oligocene Lignites of the Northern Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. PhD. Thesis. Middle East Technical University, p. 341.
  • Biltekin D (2017). Palaeovegetational and palaeoclimatic changes during the early Miocene in central Taurus, Turkey. Bulletin of the Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University 38: 101-114.
  • Bouchal JM, Zetter R, Grímsson F, Denk T (2016). The middle Miocene palynoflora and palaeoenvironments of Eskihisar (Yatağan Basin, southwestern Anatolia): a combined LM and SEM investigation. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 182, 14–79.https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12446
  • Bouchal JM, Mayda S, Zetter R, Grimsson F, Akgün F, Denk T (2017). Miocene palynofloras of the Tınaz lignite mine, Muğla, southwest Anatolia: Taxonomy, palaeoecology and local vegetation change. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 243: 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.02.010
  • Briggs JC (1995). Global Biogeography. Elsevier Science B.V. The Netherlands.
  • Çevik Üner B, Akkemik Ü, Yılmaz Şahin S (2020). Malkara-Keşan (GB Trakya) çevresinde bulunan silisleşmiş ağaçların türlerinin tespiti ve mineralojik-petrografik özellikleri, Eurasian Journal of Forest Science, 8-4: 309-337.
  • Denk T, Güner HT, Grimm G (2014). From mesic to arid: Leaf epidermal features suggest preadaptation in Miocene dragon trees (Dracaena), Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 200: 211-228.
  • Denk T, Güner TH, Kvaček Z, Bouchal MJ (2017a). The early Miocene flora of Güvem (Central Anatolia, Turkey): a window into early Neogene vegetation and environments in the Eastern Mediterranean. Acta Palaeobotanica (monograph), 57(2): 237-338.
  • Denk T, Velitzelos D, Güner T, Bouchal JM, Grimsson F, Grimm GW (2017b). Taxonomy and palaeoecology of two widespread western Eurasian Neogene sclerophyllous oak species: Quercus drymeja Unger and Q. mediterranea Unger. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 241: 98-128.
  • Denk T, Grimm GW, Manos PS, Deng M, Hipp A (2017c). An updated infrageneric classification of the oaks: review of previous taxonomic schemes and synthesis of evolutionary patterns. In: Gil-Peregrin, E., Peguero-Pina, J.J., Sancho-Knapik, D. (eds) Oaks Physiological Ecology. Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus. Tree Physiology 7, pp. 13-38. Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland.
  • Dolezych M (2011). Taxodiaceous woods in Lusatia (Central Europe), including curiosities in their nomenclature and taxonomy, with a focus on Taxodioxylon. Japanese Journal of Historical Botany, 19(1-2): 25-46.
  • Eroskay O, Aytuğ B (1982). Doğu Ergene Çanağının Petrifiye Ağaçları, İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, A, 32, 2, 7-21.
  • Eckenwalder JE (2009). Conifers of the World. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-974-4.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Orman Mühendisliği
Bölüm Derleme Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ünal AKKEMİK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA, ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ, ORMAN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ, ORMAN BOTANİĞİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-2099-5589
Türkiye


Hakan ÇELİK Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA, ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ, ORMAN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3533-5674
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mart 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 28 Mart 2022
Kabul Tarihi 31 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Akkemik, Ü. & Çelik, H. (2022). Türkiye’de tespit edilen fosil gymnosperm ağaçlarının mekânsal ve zamansal dağılımı . Turkish Journal of Biodiversity , 5 (1) , 57-66 . DOI: 10.38059/biodiversity.1094302

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Türk Biyoçeşitlilik Dergisi Creative Commons Alıntı-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.